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Mastering CNC Lathes - Online
"Scenes" refers to the number of scenes in the instruction for both the core and specific sections.
- Fanuc Zero applies to the 0T, 6T, 16T, 18T, 21T, and 30T
- Haas applies to all Haas controls
- Okuma applies to OSP-5000, OSP-7000, E, and U
- Mazak applies to T32, T Plus, Fusion 640, and Matrix
- Integrex applies to the Mazak Integrex Mill-Turn
The introduction to this module identifies the brands and models of control that may be seen in this training program. Based on the selection of the instructor, a student will receive instruction on any of the four most widely used brands, Fanuc, Haas, Mazak and Okuma. Within each brand, the student will see the models of control most commonly found in industry. The Fanuc models of 0, 16, 18, 21, and 30 series are grouped into the Fanuc selection. The Mazak T32, T Plus, Fusion 640 and Matrix; the Okuma OSP 5000 and OSP 7000 series as well as the U and E controls; and the older and newer Haas controls are grouped accordingly.
The module begins by identifying the basic operating principles of a CNC lathe. Next, the types of material typically machined on a lathe are covered. The mechanical components of the lathe are explained in the next section including chucks and collets, spindles, and the bar feeding cycle. The tailstock and its components and function are detailed. Because of the variety of turret styles or automatic tool handling mechanisms found on CNC lathes, several configurations are shown along with an explanation of how each operates. Driven or powered tooling is also introduced. Multi-turret lathes are shown as well.
Part programs are introduced as part of an explanation of the term CNC. The operating modes are revealed to show both manual and automatic control. Next, the module presents the basic components of the CNC control itself. Within each component, a discussion covers the typical variations found on machines including such topics as color or monochrome screens, panel configurations and so on. The organization of the screen displays into chapters and pages is covered next. The soft-key menu, as a tool to display various pages, is then highlighted. The Position, Program and Offset areas are briefly introduced as key portions of the displays. An example is provided to show how the stored information can be accessed using the soft keys and control panel buttons. The cursor and it control buttons are introduced. Cautions about tool sharpness and turret and spindle movements are emphasized.
During the control-specific sections of the module for Fanuc, Mazak, Haas and Okuma the variations found on each control type are explained to show how the menu and soft key areas are displayed as well as the selection of operating modes.
The Integrex / Nexus addendum shows how the turning and milling functions are performed at the main and sub spindle. The Integrex rotating tool head and tool changer are examined along with cutoff of bar fed lathes. The Matrix control is then introduced along with its QWERTY keyboard.
As the most fundamental part of the CNC lathe and its operation, the coordinate grid is covered in detail in this module. It begins with an explanation of the need for precise control of tool movements to create workpiece dimensions and how the grid achieves this. The typical three-axis grid, also referred to as the right-hand coordinate grid is explained and then refined to explain how only two axes are required for turning. The plane established by these two axes is then discussed.
The standards of EIA and ISO are introduced to define how the axes are applied to spindle rotation and tool movements of all CNC lathes. The concepts of "addresses" assigned and the plus and minus values created on either side of the origin are revealed. The intersection of X and Z axes establishment of coordinates is then examined. Next, the location of X zero as centerline of the spindle is highlighted along with a discussion of how the right hand can be used to detect the plus and minus directions of the grid.
Next, the inch and metric units of measure used within the grid, and the codes or parameters used to define the operational units are explained. The concept of initial-point and endpoint as it relates to the coordinates found in a program is discussed. The C axis of machining is introduced along with the application of live tooling with its coordinates in degrees.
Since many errors involve the signs of coordinates and the signs of machine movements, the next module covers these concepts in detail. The division of the grid into quadrants and the signs of each address within those quadrants is revealed. The location of program zero as determined by the programmer is essential to the locations of the quadrants and therefore the signs of the coordinates in the program. The location of X zero is defined and the two likely Z zero locations examined and their impact on the Z coordinate signs. Next, the trainee is cautioned to not confuse the signs of coordinates with the directions to movement of the turret. Several examples are used to clarify these concepts.
The signs of X axis coordinates don't change on single turret lathes so the impact of two turret machines on coordinates is revealed. The use of more than one grid system in a lathe has always been a point of confusion for trainees. The use of multiple zero points, and the resulting grids they establish, are explained to overcome this problem. The fixed zero point from which all others are located is defined as Machine Zero or Home. Next, the Program or Work Zero point is defined and it relevance to the coordinates within a program. This is followed by the Relative Zero location and grid. Finally, the Distance-to-Go grid and its importance in connection with the previous discussion about start-point and end-point values with programmed blocks. Its importance in the checking of new programs is further highlighted.
In the control-specific portions of the module, the application of multiple grids as found on Fanuc, Haas, Mazak and Okuma models are explained accordingly. Because the Mazak Integrex coordinate grid changes based on the type of machining process being performed, turning or milling, these aspects are explained in detail.
Since the grid system has been established, the positioning of the turret within the grid can be covered. The module begins with an explanation of the way in which the computer controls the turret's to create Indexing, Rapid and Feed movements. The conditions required for each, such as the Safe Index point are revealed. The use of unidirectional and bi-directional turret movements are discussed as well as the control panel manual buttons. The speed of turret movements are then broken down further into rapid traverse and feed rates.
The concerns about cycle time are examined. The need to move the turret at the highest possible speed while maintaining the required quality is covered as it relates to the motors, encoders, ball screws and ways. The process of moving the turret and the feedback of turret location provided by the encoders is outlined. The concept of Feed Rate is explained and the variations needed for the type of cut and the material being machined.
The lesson then defines the basic machining movements needed to create a finished workpiece including such items as rough and finish cuts. The concepts of Depth-of-Cut, Feed Rate, and Surface Speed are defined and their interrelationships examined.
This module now moves into the specific types of machining that the CNC lathe can perform, turning, facing, drilling, and so on. Turning of ID and OD surfaces is investigated initially. Tool holders used for turning are revealed. Programmed T addresses for tool numbers are then highlighted as they relate to turret mounting positions. Indexable inserts and their shapes are covered next. ANSI standards relating to inserts are introduced. The definition of machining processes continues with facing. The use of constant surface speed is detailed by looking at spindle speed changes during a facing operation. Drilling operations are investigated next including a typical drill sequence of spot drill, center drill and standard twist drills. Drill holders are displayed including collets and chucks. Coolant drill variations are shown next along with the requirement of peck drilling cycles in deep holes. OD Grooving operations and their tooling follow. Single-point thread tools and their processes are covered next along with the synchronization of the speed and feed rates required. Tapping operations and tooling are examined including the floating holder. Boring processes for precise ID turning prior to thread turning or to create higher quality finishes are examined. Because each machining process requires coolant supplied to the cutting tool, a discussion of the coolant system follows. Positioning of coolant flow to reach under the chip formation area on the tool is stressed. Adjustment systems to control coolant volume are examined as well. The removal of the coolant and chips from the machining area is covered in the following portion by examining chip conveyors. Lastly, powered tooling is discussed along with the C axis control of the spindle. Both OD milling and face drilling are used as examples.
Whether an operator ever needs to write a program or not, they will be required to read part programs so they can determine the corrective action needed to solve quality problems. This lesson introduces the most common languages used in lathe programming. It begins by explaining the various levels of computer programming from ones and zeros to high level languages used on CNC lathes. G and M code EIA/ISO and conversational languages are shown as examples of special purpose programming languages. The graphical features and tool path simulations are shown as the current state-of-the-art. Symbolic FAPT and Okuma IGF are also reviewed as common conversational languages. The several techniques for converting conversational programs into G and M codes are then discussed and their impact on the program editing process illustrating the importance of learning G and M code editing.
Since APT and Conversational languages are normally translated into EIA codes before execution on the machine, a more detailed look at the elements of the EIA coding system is provided. The address N and its indexing function to help locate code within programs is covered initially. G codes are examined using the G01 code and its coordinate combinations as an example. The use of path interpolation is discussed as well. Information on M codes and their functions begin using the M08 example. The grouping of blocks into tool paths using T codes and the ability to find such groups on the printout of manuscripts is highlighted. T codes are then examined further with the variations that might be found in various programs. The end of programs and the use of the M02 and M30 codes and their function completes the module.
This module looks at the elements of a typical Conversational program as they appear on a lathe control. The Mazatrol language is used as the example. The Common Unit data is examined first with its selection of physical shape and material types. Processes are defined next as it relates to machining operations to be performed. The numbering of processes is explained along with the prompts and soft key menu changes that appear as a cursor is moved across the Process and Sequence data lines. The correlation between Sequences and blocks in EIA programs to define shapes is made clear.
The Integrex section explains how G code programming can be performed separately on some model machines or as a part of a Mazatrol program on others. The use of Mazak’s milling conversational language on the Integrex is examined as well. The differences between a Process and a Unit and a Sequence compared to Figure Data are explained.
The concepts of Off-line and On-line programming are discussed to acquaint the student with the potential situations they may face within a shop and how it would affect their responsibilities. The use of the Automatic Intersection Point Calculation on the Mazak lathe is explored as a tool to simplify the math needed to create a program. An example is shown for illustration using arc programming. The Shape Check function to verify the automatically generated path. Off-line programming is illustrated through the use of the Fanuc FAPT terminal. The use of CAD and CAM systems to generate the workpiece design and part program are explained, as well as the post processor to generate the code specific to particular CNC controls and machines.
The previous level illustrated the importance of understanding EIA programming techniques, even on those lathes that use Conversational programming methods. With this understanding, the student is ready to learn more about the programmed control of machine movements by investigating what makes up a block. The concept of Buffer memory and how blocks are read into and out of the buffer is then explained in the core section. The importance of using the Reset button during program restarts to clear the buffer is examined to avoid collisions. The highlighting used to identify blocks already in the buffer is shown. The location of the end-of-block symbol identifies the word wrapping of longer blocks into two lines. Since all codes within a tool movement block are acted upon at once, the requirement for only a single G code per block is defined. Start and End Points of programmed movements are explained along with blocks which only have one axis programmed. The machine-specific sections that follow show how each control identifies end-of-block, the active block and buffer cursors, the display of buffer stored blocks and the Reset function.
The Integrex/Nexus section explains how G code and Mazatrol programming may be used. The execution of long programs from the hard drive is explained.
While some G and M codes were introduced earlier, this core module expands to include more codes and explains them more fully and demonstrates their effect. The modal code function is explained by using an example of a block without a G code using the last G01 code executed. Non modal codes are then discussed using the G04 as an example and how a dwell is programmed. The grouping of modal codes into groups is revealed next. The impact of another code within a group and those from other groups are shown. The non-linear nature of G00 codes can be the cause of crashes. The effect the axes motors have on the potential problem are examined in detail to help operators avoid this situation. Single-axis programming techniques to avoid this problem are explained. G02 and G03 codes are examined next. M codes are explained next including M08, M09, M05, M03, M04, M01 and the optional stop switches, and M00. The F address codes follow. Next, the use of G98 and G99 codes, and G94 and G95 on Okuma to establish feed rates are discussed. S codes for spindle control are then covered along with the G96 and G97 codes that control surface speed.
Following the explanation of the use of computer codes to control machine movements, the equivalent manual machine controls are explained on each control type. Included are Main Power switch, and power on and off buttons on the control. The trainee is cautioned to turn off the control before turning off the main power switch. On Fanuc controls Manual Modes of operation shown include MDI, Handle, Jog, and Rapid. The typical Handle, Jog and MDI modes are defined and their normal application explained. The jog rate controls are explained next. The override controls on Haas and Mazak are covered as well. The Handle mode is revealed next with the Hand Pulse Wheel control operational features. MDI functions are expanded upon along with execution with the Cycle Start button. Feed or Slide Hold operation is detailed next with a clear understanding of which functions are controlled. Next, the use of the Emergency Stop and which operating systems it controls is examined. The need to Home the machine and use of the Reset function are explained further. The spindle Forward and Reverse and stop controls are followed by the discussion of the Jog buttons found on Mazak and Okuma. The ability to manually index the Turret is outlined with the Tool buttons and Index features of various controls.
The Ingegrex/Nexus portion covers the jog directions for the B, X, W and Y axes. Operators are cautioned about moving between the Hand Wheel and Jog controls to avoid collisions. It also examines the tool change functions and the use of MDI to change tooling and the tool magazine and its manual controls. The sub-spindle manual controls are detailed.
Understanding the organizational approach used within an EIA program enables an operator to quickly find specific portions of the program when editing or troubleshooting. The process of numbering blocks with Sequence Numbers in increments of ten is explained along with the fact that these numbers have no impact on the sequence of execution. Diameter and Radius programming methods are explained as it applies to each control type. The effect of each technique as it concerns editing and offset entry in then examined. The suppression of leading or training zeros in G and M code program displays is covered next. This module then breaks down a typical program into initialization blocks, tool paths and reset blocks. The O address program number is outlined first. Since homing of the machine in the initialization blocks with a G28 is common, an explanation of the technique is provided along with the importance of canceling any offsets applied. The concept of tool nose radius is then introduced along with the use of the G40 to cancel any remaining offsets. The process of establishing the active system of measurement is then detailed using G20 and G21 or parameters. This leads into a discussion of the terminology used when referring to both inch and metric dimensional values. The concepts of "tenths", as it relates to one-ten-thousandth of an inch and microns are covered.
Explanations of absolute and incremental programming and how they differ begins the module. The codes G90 and 91 are covered and well as the U and W axes as an alternative to establishing incremental conditions without a G code. The techniques used on each control type are examined. The resulting tool movements under various techniques are revealed by looking at the use of U and W in a G28 example. This leads to a discussion of intermediate points in G28 blocks. The example program then leads to a review of the M00 and M01 codes and the Optional Stop switch use. Establishment of the Safe Index Point is introduced as one of the blocks that proceeds indexing. The variables effecting the establishment of a Safe Index location are then discussed.
When a part program has a repeating set of tool movements, such as when cutting the same feature pattern at several locations along a shaft, sub programs are frequently used. An example of the M98 and M99 codes used to c all sub programs and the P address used to identify the program number are outlined. Block number return programming following a P address is then discussed. An example of initialization blocks using sub program commands to execute G28 codes is then provided.
The use of macro programming for families of parts is examined in detail. The # sign and the Common, Local and System variables utilized are examined. The numbers assigned to groups of variables normally assigned are explained. A program example is examined to illustrate the application. Mathematical operators are also covered including the "If", "Equal" and "GoTo" commands.
Before controls had the memory capacity to store tool offsets, the G50 code was used as an alternative. The concept of moving the grid as opposed to moving the tool to cause a tool to exhibit a specific coordinate location is explained initially. It is then noted that no actual tool movement occurs when a G50 is executed. Therefore, the importance of locating the tool at a precisely known location before a G50 is executed is then examined. G50 programming is shown to stress the importance of the sequence of the blocks. The use of the safe index location is the revealed as the typical G50 location. Operators are cautioned on the hazards that arise with this form of programming.
The Integrex/Nexus portion examines the use of special codes to accommodate the combination of lathe and mill functions within Integrex programs. Modal code groups are discussed and the default codes found within them. A Home operation is then detailed to establish the default status.
This module introduces conversational programming concepts. The differences between each brand of control are outlined in the core section. The elements that are considered when developing a conversational part program are defined by outlining the five steps involved. It begins with the selection of the material from which workpieces will be machined. This allows the selection of speeds and feeds by the control. The selection of a process and final dimensions follow as typical of many controls as well as the differences found on Fanuc controls. The conversion from conversational to G code programs is explained as it relates to many controls. The module then explains the most common machining processes and sequences using a Mazak program as the example. The Processes introduced in this module include Material, M code, Manual, and End. The similarity of the process to a tool path and the sequence to blocks in G codes programs are examined.
The remainder of the module expands by explaining the programming contained in the 8 common machining Processes in Mazak programs; bar, copy, edge, corner, thread, drill, groove, and tap. The Bar and Manual processes are then explained in more detail.
Integrex/Nexus Addendum: Since the Integrex used a program language designed originally for milling, this section defines each basic part of the program. The Common Unit is detailed in the next portion. The method used to define machining at Main or Sub spindle is examined next. Manual and Sub Program units are explained in the last portion.
Two large specific sections are provided in this module without a Core section. The Fanuc FAPT and Okuma IGF programming languages are examined in each section. In the FAPT section, each page and portion of the data input screens found on lathes which use the Fanuc Symbolic FAPT language is detailed. A typical workpiece is programmed as an example.
In the second section, the same process is followed for Okuma IGF screens and data entry. Again, a demonstration workpiece is programmed.
Two factors determine the available space in the controls memory for programs. The availability of memory storage and the limited directory for program names determines what action an operator must take before loading a new program. This modules explains the storage methods and name directories and how to calculate the available space. The designations of meters, characters and bytes are compared. The use of sectors on hard drives is explained to understand why all unused space may not be available. Various loading mechanisms are discussed such as DNC, FEP, floppy drives and tape readers.
The five specific modules explain how to search for a stored program in memory, activate a program, or delete and load a new program on each control type.
This lesson begins with a thorough explanation of the concept of tool offsets and how they are applied in both conversational and EIA based controls. These include geometry, wear, tool nose radius and tool orientation. The mechanical process by which the CNC control applies an offset by positioning the turret is detailed. The terminology used by each control type is revealed. The advantages of the Wear offset are explained as it relates to Geometry Offsets. The data screens used for tool offset entry are shown. The application of tool nose radius (TNR) compensation is explained as it relates to the programming method and the types of cuts where it is most important. The concerns of under cutting or over cutting when TNR is not active or incorrect are explained to aid in troubleshooting. The ANSI code designation is examined to calculate the TNR value for an insert. The G41, G42 and G40 codes are covered with an explanation of how to determine the correct code based on tool movement. The modal nature of the codes is stressed to avoid errors. The screen displays and locations of TNR values are examined next. The relationship of TNR to the Tool Orientation code is examined in detail. Location charts are shown to discover the orientation value. The application of stored tool offsets using the T address word is then explained for each control.
Since conversational controls require more comprehensive entry of tool and cutting conditions data, the Mazak Tool File and Tool Data screens and their data displays are explained. The relationship between each type of Process and the data is taught. The process of acquiring this tool data from standard tool catalogs and machining handbooks is also covered. The Cutting Conditions page is examined and the purpose of the values discussed as it relates to carbon steel. The Change Conditions and Material page is shown with an explanation of the link to the Carbon Steel reference data. The use of the Auto button to update machining data changes within existing programs is shown. The process of entering new materials types is also demonstrated.
This module covers the Tool File and Tool Data pages and their relationship in a Mazak conversational control. The importance of entering detailed information is explained to permit the automatic calculation of speeds and feeds for various material types. A review of the data stored on the Tool File page begins next. The fact that Tool File data can be associated with more than one tool is examined. The various tool styles and shapes are investigated relative to their mounting positions on the turret. Depth Angle settings are revealed for various style inserts from their specifications in a tooling catalog. Insert numbers are used to identify the tip angle and other values for entry. The tool data screen is examined next. The FNO File number reference back to the Tool File data is highlighted. Each value to enter is explained for many common types of tools.
The Integrex section examines the application of Mazatrol and EIA style offsets and where they are entered and how they are applied. This reveals the need to double certain offsets when milling tools are used. The use the Zero Offset when moving a part to the sub spindle is shown next. The use of A and B designations when applied to geometry offsets and X and Z when applied to wear offsets is revealed as well as the use of the Compensation Help display. The Increment and Max Wear functions are also shown.
While the specific duties of an operator may vary within shops, when preparing for automatic operation generally the job includes machine start up and checking operating systems. This lesson includes turning on the power and the safety concerns with lock-out conditions. The control power switch is activated next and the start up screen revealed. The three primary operating systems are then examined. It begins with the coolant systems and includes visual inspection and the checking for suspended grit through feel. After identifying the coolant tank locations, the various sight gauges are examined and the visual indicators of fluid levels. The coolant to water ratio refractor gauge is explained and the process of checking the ratio. The process of entering coolant or water is then outlined. The components of the hydraulic system are then discussed and the machine components using hydraulic power. The hydraulic level and pressure gauges and their filter systems are then examined. Finally, the way oil system components, it proper levels and gauges are reviewed. Rechecking of fluid levels after a suitable machine warm up is recommended.
Before running a program, Fanuc, Haas and Mazak controlled lathes require the machine to be sent to the Home or Reference Point to clear any accumulated errors. The use of Machine Zero as Reference Point is detailed initially. The programming of the G28 code to automatically return the machine is shown in a typical part program. The establishment of the intermediate point following the G28 code is illustrated along with its function. After power up or after an Emergency Stop condition a Manual Reference Point return function is examined on Fanuc, then Haas controls. The process is then detailed for illustration. Because of the rapid rate used for this function, the concerns about overtravel situations are highlighted, especially as it applies to Haas machines after power up. The jogging controls typical of Mazak machines is examined next and then the home operation is shown.
With the homing process completed, the program can be run. The tasks covered include checking the program against the setup documentation and locating the currently active program on the display. Next, cleaning the work holding device is explained and the importance of checking the locating surfaces for chips and burrs. The workpiece is also examined and cleaned. Correctly locating and securing the piece in the holding device follows. Collets, chucks, and tailstocks are discussed along with the locating stops inside collets. Bar-fed lathes are mentioned along with the stock stop and the cutoff tool. Chuck, collet, and tailstock manual operating controls are examined as well. The door to the machining area is next with it interlocks and the alarm condition it creates. Operators are cautioned to look at the program when machining stops to be sure the program does not have a programmed stop for repositioning, chip clearance, or measurement. The safety aspects of cleaning chips and coolant from the machined piece are covered next. Removing the piece and cleaning the work holding device is shown. Operators are directed to mount the next piece, check cursor positioning, then begin the next piece. The measurement of the just completed part is then examined. The specific modules that follow explain how to locate the correct operating screens and automatically run the first piece safely using the overrides on each control type.
The learner must be prepared to identify quality defects as they appear in jobs for which they assume operational responsibility. This lesson prepares the individual for these duties. The visual and sound indicators of chatter are provided. A detailed examination of the causes for chatter is then performed with recommendations on how to overcome the problem during a cut using overrides. Trainees are cautioned to reset of overrides for the next tool or tool path if the problem disappears and then investigate the cause after the part is finished. They are directed to examine five possible areas that may be the most likely sources of the chatter problem and shown how to identify each one from tool or part conditions. Identifying the causes of finish problems beyond chatter are examined with an explanation of rough and finish cuts and their differing ratios of tool wear. The causes of broken finish inserts is then examined along with a recommendation to check size after roughing to isolate the cause. Finisher removal rates are then highlighted along with a discussion of how to achieve a balance to bring the dimension to size while maintaining proper finish.
An explanation of the effect of tool offsets begins this module stressing the importance of understanding that making one feature larger may be making another feature smaller. The four things an operator must determine before making an adjustment are outlined next. After locating the nominal dimension on the print, it is compared to the measured dimension. Determination of the axis of the offset is found by determining the direction of tool movement which created the faulty dimension or feature location. The direction of tool movement is highlighted in contrast to the sign of the coordinate in establishing the sign of the offset. Examples using OD and ID cuts are shown to illustrate the differences. The use of diameter versus radius programming is examined and the impact on the offset. The effect on Z axis versus X axis machining corrections is then revealed. Concerns with the location of a feature are also covered.
The specific modules for each control explain how to locate the correct offset screen and enter the offset value in the proper location.
This modules enables the learner to jog the turret to a safe location and index the turret as required to inspect an insert. The use of the jog controls, jog rate selector or override, and axis selection are covered initially. Concerns about safety during jogging are examined. Once at a location with proper clearance, the Index control is revealed. With the insert in position to be inspected, the four areas of concern are discussed. They learn to identify chipped, burned, broken and worn inserts through visual and tactile inspection. Examples of each of the problems is examined along with explanations of likely causes such as interrupted cuts and hard materials, lack of coolant or incorrect positioning, and so on. The process of removing, cleaning and replacing an insert is then explained. The importance of using the correct tool for insert removal and replacement is stressed. Rotation and replacement are examined. Finally, concerns with previously entered tool wear offsets is revealed.
The Integrex section examines the process of positioning the tool head on the Integrex to access an insert for replacement using the Rapid mode, Setup Switch, Jog buttons and the use of the rotation control to position the head at zero degrees. The tool is unclamped, removed and insert replaced, tool replaced and any Wear offset cleared.
Each of the four specific sections in this module covers the restarting of program execution from within a part program. It cautions the operator to be sure any tool offset is corrected after a tool has been replaced, typically removing any wear offset that applies. Both automatic and manual restart functions are discussed. In executing a Manual Restart, search functions are used to return to the block where program interruption occurred. Once at the block, the operator is advised on the selection of the safest restart block preceding the interruption point. Next, the positioning of the turret to allow a safe restart path is examined. Checking the currently active blocks and the buffer is recommended next. Using the Machine Lock function and re-executing the program from the beginning is recommended as an alternative if any questions exists about the active codes. If a list was made of active blocks at the interruption point, MDI entry of these codes is also demonstrated.
Statistical Process Control is one of the most common ways for operators to reduce scrap and rework. It allows the operator to monitor the process and make corrections before any out-of-tolerance parts are produced. While the extent to which SPC is applied will vary from shop to shop, this module discusses the basic principles behind SPC and the advantages it offers to the operator who uses it to eliminate the running of workpieces which do not meet quality standards. A clear understanding of the out-of-control versus out-of-tolerance conditions is explained. The predictive nature of SPC is covered next. The normal random variation versus assignable causes are defined. The use of Capability Studies to establish initial conditions and the resulting Histogram it produces is explained. Next, the X bar and R charts and the limits lines on them are clarified. The frequency of measurement intervals is discussed as it relates to variation of the process. The patterns of out of control conditions are defined including beyond limits, mid-point shift, and trends. The advantages to the operator of discovering an out-of-control condition before any out-of-tolerance parts occur is explained in detail. The concept of CPK and how it is applied to the process is also explained.
Because of the wider use of Conversational controls, operators are often given the responsibility to write simple workpiece programs. In addition, smaller shops which do not have off-line programming personnel or equipment may require the operator to assume all programming responsibilities on both EIA and conversational controls. This lesson prepares the learner by giving them instruction in the task of process planning. The various control manufacturers operator and programming manuals which came with the machine tool are recommended as materials needed for planning the machining process. Other tool and general reference manuals are also suggested. The investigation of the part print begins the process. References to allowances left for subsequent manufacturing process are examined. Because of the point-point requirements of machining, the print is studied and any missing feature dimensions calculated. The location of reference datums and their correlation to the establishment of program zero is detailed. The effect of locating program zero on the either end of the part is examined as it effects the signs of coordinates and the potential need to recalculate all coordinates on the print before programming. Both cast and bar stock parts with their cutoff concerns are discussed. Next, material specifications are studied and the size tolerance of the blank material as it impacts the required finish tool path minimums.
This lesson begins by relating the quality and safety concerns that involve work holding devices. The depth of chuck jaw surfaces in Z must consider both OD machining clearance and rigidity. ID and OD chucking variations are discussed. Hydraulic and manually operated OD chucks are shown along with the concerns about the variation in material size. Details about part deformation versus rigidity and the marking of surfaces are revealed. Double-chucked workpieces and stepped jaws are mentioned next. Long parts and the selection of chucks or collets and the use of tailstocks follow. Collet operating principles are examined along with shaped jaws for various forms of bar stock. The formulas used for determining when a tailstock is typically required are explained. For double chucked parts, the techniques used in part programs to accommodate rechucking are examined. Concerns with overhang and the potential for chatter or deflection of long parts completes the module.
Process planning is explained by providing the common sequence of machining for OD chucked workpieces. These include Rough Facing, Rough OD Turning, ID Roughing, Finish Facing, Finish OD Turning, Finish ID. Other processes such as OD and ID single point threading and tapping are explained. The facing operation is explained as a method of getting to the Z zero location for future measurements. The use of the Mazak EDGE statement is used as the example. OD roughing is examined next with the initial cuts beginning from the face. The concerns about wasted cutting time are discussed and suggestions provided to reduce the problem in conversational programs. The programming for finishing passes is then demonstrated. Chamfers and grooves are covered next. ID and OD threading are next. The limits of hole size are discussed relative to the use of taps or single point threading. Documentation of the machining sequence is examined last.
With the work holding device selected, the remainder of the setup of the machine can begin. This lesson continues the process by inspecting the existing tools which will be used for the new job and installing any new tools required. The operator is cautioned to try and use as many existing tools as possible to reduce set up time. Common size inserts such as 35, 55 and 80 degree styles and holders are examined next. The selection criteria for insert styles is discussed as it relates to the type of cut and machining properties. Concerns about chip clearance are detailed. Machining properties of various materials are discussed. Left and right-hand tool holders are covered next with their relationship to spindle rotation. Tool holders shank sizes are stressed and the concerns with keeping the cutting edge on center. Boring bar sizes in relationship to the ID hole are mentioned as well as and the concerns with positioning longer tools in the turret to allow adequate chuck clearance when other turning tools are machining.
With the accuracy of work dimensions controlled by the work holding device and its locating surfaces, a complete explanation of the setup of a chuck is found in this module. Length and concentricity concerns are addressed initially. An explanation of Runout also is provided. ID and OD chuck controls are examined next. The conditions under which the jaws are remachined, or new jaws installed and turned, are explained. Placing the spindle in neutral occurs next so chuck jaws can be removed. The locking of the chuck while loosening the holding bolts is suggested. The jaw components are then defined. The new jaws are marked to match the master jaw numbering sequence. T bolts and nuts are removed form the old jaws, cleaned and installed in the new jaws. Serrations are measured to be sure each jaw is aligned properly. Concerns about positioning are examined based on the diameter of the gripping surface and a general rule is provided. Next, fixtures for workpieces which do not provide a cylindrical surface for gripping are discussed. The need to remove inner corners of jaws to allow clearance when jaws grip small diameter parts is explained . In preparation for turning the jaws, the use of a plug or spider allows closing OD jaws. The use of a ring for ID jaws is also covered. The process of calculating the length needed for machining the plug or ring surface is revealed. Setting of the chuck to ID for machining the OD plug surface is next. Boring tools used for turning jaws are highlighted. A manual mode is selected and the door interlock disabled for manual machining. Gear ratios and spindle direction controls establish starting conditions. Relative Z display is zeroed after touching off the face. After machining the plug surface, the placing of the plug and turning of the jaw surfaces continues. Testing of clamping pressure, runout and checking for marking of the piece is next. Back corner clearance is also established. Setting of chuck gripping pressure is also covered.
Bar fed lathes and others often use Collets for work holding. An explanation of the types of workpieces that require a collet are examined first. Next, the components and operation of the collet are discussed. Removal, cleaning and replacement of collet pads are shown next. Removal of the master collet and sleeve are then demonstrated. Cleaning of all components follows. Checking for nicks or burrs precedes mounting of the new components. The location and adjustment of the End Stop is revealed next with concerns for facing cuts and part length requirements taken into consideration.
Conversational controls often require the entry of data on the workpiece holding device before machining begins. The entry of Chuck Data on Mazak controls is used as an example of this process for both OD and ID chucks. The display of the Chuck Data screen is demonstrated first. Each column is defined and the graphic display examined. Erasing existing chuck data is revealed. Jaw type is entered. The remaining Dimensions A to D are examined and defined. Variations for ID versus PD jaws are discussed. The program is then set to identify which of the stored jaws data sets to use.
The module covers three types of tailstocks; Latching, Trip Dog, and Limit Switch. These include units positioned by the turret, manually positioned units, and powered tailstocks. Installation of live centers, dead centers, and the adjustment of each type of tailstock is shown. For pieces not having a center, the use of a drive slot is explained. The explanation of center drill sizes and reading of thrust gages is included.
The Integrex section shows how the tailstock is setup on the Nexus with the Matrix control.
This module explains how to interpret a tool drawing to establish the direction and axis of each tool in relation to the spindle centerline. Tool and insert numbering systems are explained including the hand of the holder, the positive or negative rake angle, and the shank dimensions. The ANSI code for tool inserts is examined. The gage number and diameter values of end working tools are shown. Various types of end-working tool holders are covered including boring bars, floating holders, collet type and drill chucks. The process for removing, cleaning, and installing an OD tool is then shown followed by the installation of an ID tool.
The first 30 scenes of the Intrex section shows the Integrex tool magazine and how to locate, remove and install tools and enter the correct information in the proper location on the Tool Data page. It details how to interpret the illustrations and how it relates to the tool dimensions. The last 32 scenes examines the process of installing tools and entering data on the Nexus lathe in detail.
The Mazak Tool Life management system is explained in this module. The purpose for the management system is explained initially outlining the "uses" versus "time" criteria. The error code that appears is detailed next. The automatic substitution of another tool when a limit is reached is highlighted next. The tool life screen display is examined indicating the purpose of each column. The process of resetting a value after tool indexing or replacement is shown next. Selection of a spare tool is also revealed.
Program zero can now be located on the workpiece and entered in the computer program or offset tables. The variables of programming technique, common practices and the CNC control type affect this process. Using prints and other set up documentation, the determination of where work zero is to be located on the finished part dimensions begins the process. After homing the machine and setting up for a manual control over machining, the module describes the machining of the workpiece using a reference tool and the measuring and calculating necessary to locate this zero point of the machined surfaces. The Large Offset method is explained which combines both Program Zero and the tool offset value into a single tool offset value. The method of finding the correct value for a tool and the process of entering it into the offset table is demonstrated. As an alternative programming method, the use of G54 to G59 codes for setting zero is also explained. Their use when families of parts are involved is detailed. The use of preset tools is also discussed.
The machining of the work surface to establish a G54 Z value is then demonstrated.
The process of entering the program zero data for each brand of control is explained in the machine-specific modules.
The Integrex section covers the Mazak Matrix control and the location of zero for a main and sub spindle on an Integrex. The programming units used to synchronize and transfer the zero point between main and sub spindle is examined in detail. The unique nature of the Facing Back unit is also covered as it relates to the sign of the Z axis values.
With Program Zero established, the tool offsets for each tool can be determined and entered. Several techniques for touching-off tools are explained as well as the use of automated gauging systems and preset tools. The Large Offset Method and Small Offset Method are examined initially. Next, preset tools are detailed showing the use of a pre setter and the documentation systems typically found in the setup materials. The Small Offset Method is then examined in detailed with the use either a setup piece or rough part. The use of "paper gauging" to establish the touch off point is demonstrated. A complete explanation of the use of multiple G50 codes within older programs is explained along with the concerns about potential problems that can arise.
The variations found in each brand of control are then discussed in each machine-specific section. The entry of the offset values is demonstrated.
The Integrex section shows the use of the tool eye on the Matrix control on the Nexus. The use of the same tool for main and sub spindle machining is explained for the Integrex.
The techniques for establishing and entering a Safe Index location are covered in this module. G00 codes are examined to locate the safe index points in a part program. The use of G28 and G00 codes in the initialization blocks is detailed as well. The process of finding the safe index location is then demonstrated. Several approaches are explained to accommodate the most common programming methods and the specific features of some brands of control.
The use of Variable Limits to establish a safe index point on Okuma controls is explained in the specific section.
The module explains in more detail the concerns associated with circular interpolation commands within EIA programs. The geometry of arcs and circles are examined initially. The effects of altering the Start Point, End Point or Center Point coordinates are explained as it relates to changes in the arc, length or location of the feature. Both the I, J & K address and radius programming of the center point coordinates are covered. Examples of both types of programming are revealed. The signs associated with coordinates are explained as they relate to the center point location and radius values. Variations on other control types are shown. An explanation of portions of these blocks which can be safely edited is then detailed.
The process of writing a new Mazak program is detailed in this module. It begins with displaying the Program File page and establishing whether enough room exists to start a new program. Next, a work number is assigned. The Common data line appears and the entry of each cursor position is demonstrated with reference to the selections available from the menu and an explanation of the required entry based on workpiece type. The concerns about potential "out of shape" alarms are examined and solutions offered.
The Mazak-specific module covers a programming function material shape. Forged or cast workpieces require the use of the Material Shape Process in the Mazatrol program. The process line is displayed with its sets of data entry positions to define the shape of the workpiece. The "line out" functions are explained along with the need to start at the program zero end of the workpiece when defining shapes. The differences between the earlier model controls and the T32 and above are shown. The linear, tapered, convex, or a concave shape selection are then demonstrated. An explanation of start-point coordinates and the concept of entering opposing corners during straight line programming is covered. Tapered lines are examined next with the use of the Continue function. The importance of the radius value and some of the X and Z coordinates when programming for concave and convex shapes is illustrated. The use of the Automatic Intersection Point feature is then covered to show the calculation of the missing data points. The M code process line is also explained since it frequently follows the Shape data process. The use of the M7 code is highlighted as a method of avoiding alarms involving chuck closing.
Mazatrol programs require the entry of a number of data sets to create the workpiece features within a process. This module completes an EDGE process by entering each data value and explaining their purpose. The importance of beginning machining with and edge process is detailed. The use of the Auto key to automatically enter values required for programming is examined. Methods of determining the start point coordinates are discussed including the use of a roughing tool. The variables effecting the entry of the Final Point in both X and Z are determined by the type of workpiece. Next the surface finish for facing is examined along with the two selections available. The use of the figure check function is performed to locate any potential errors.
This core module explains the basic concepts behind canned cycles and how they are utilized within EIA programs to minimize repetitive programming. The Fanuc, Haas and Okuma techniques are demonstrated. The start-point and endpoint for canned cycles differs from conventional programming. The G70 through G76 and G80 through G94 series of cycles are examined. The importance of the preceding positioning blocks is stressed. The establishment of the R-plane and positioning of the tool during the cycle are covered. The G98 and G99 Return-Point codes are covered.
Canned cycles for tapping and boring operations are covered in this module. The G84 and G84.1 are introduced for right and left hand tapping. Any differences in G codes or functions on specific brands are included within this module. The tapping process is examined as well as the effect on the override and feed hold controls during a tapping cycle. Concerns with thread quality are addressed with emphasis on the drilling that precedes the tap. The G85, G86, G87, G88 and G89 boring cycles are examined in detail next. Each cycles features regarding dwell, feed rate on withdrawal, and so on, are discussed.
This Mazak specific module covers in detail the machining processes used most commonly. The basic OD and ID process for Mazak's mazatrol language is the Bar Process. Each PART selection on the menu is reviewed for the type of feature it produces for ID, OD and Face applications. Cut Point IN X values creating illegal entry errors are revealed. The Shape Pattern selections are outlined next. The sequence of entering machining process is discussed with cautions about conditions that create "Illegal Sequence of Data" alarms. The END process is examined as the last process in a program. The functions that allow multiple workpieces to be machined are shown.
The ability to program EIA codes within a conversational program is common to most languages. This Mazak specific module shows the Mazatrol Manual process. Examples of the conditions under which manual programming will be required are detailed. Both the Process and Sequence data entry are demonstrated. Cautions are provided about use of the G00 command and the tool path it may create. Cautions about the execution of M codes and the signs of Z axis cutting moves are provided to avoid potential errors. The use of the Shape Check and Tool Path Check are discussed as they apply to manual programming situations. Each of the available G codes and their specific needs are covered.
The Integrex/Nexus addendum covers the application of manual programming using G code within a conversational program. A sample program used to deploy the parts catcher is examined and the G53.5 code application revealed. The M302, M305, M154, G110, G111, M48, M306, M358, and M49 code are explained.
Conversational controls have processes which are similar to the canned cycles seen in the previous modules. These include processes for Copy and Corner machining. This module explains the programming of these processes on Mazak controls. The Copy process is defined as useful for cast or forged pieces. The cursor is moved across the process and each position defined. A similar sequence is followed for the Corner Machining process. The concerns about correctly locating the start point are highlighted as they effect OUT, IN and FACE or BACK selections.
Because of the differences in how Drilling and Grooving canned cycles are programmed, there are only specific sections provided in this module. Processes for Mazak controls which perform the same functions are also covered in the specific section. Data entry for programming Mazak drilling and grooving is also explained. The section on Fanuc also covers Haas controls. An Okuma section is also provided. Canned cycles for drilling G81, G82, G83, and grooving operation commands G74 and G75 are detailed along with the addresses that affect the cycle within the blocks. Solutions to various quality problems are also provided.
EIA controls have available both G codes and canned cycles for threading. This module teaches the operator to read and understand the most commonly used of these commands. Topics include the similarities and differences between G92, G76, G32, G33, and G78 commands. Examples illustrate how each command works. Thread lead, TPI, multi-start threads, the G32 clearance groove, and other specific information is covered. The operator is also given procedures for measuring the cut threads and making needed program edits.
A specific instruction is provided on the thread cutting commands on Okuma controls.
In this module the operator learns how the G90 Turning and G94 Facing canned cycles work and how to safely edit them to produce acceptable workpiece features. The alternative G77 and G79 are mentioned. The four common addresses found within such a block are detailed along with their function. The tool path is revealed in an example of each code. The modal nature of the codes is examined as a method of performing multiple passes without reprogramming the codes. Performing tapered cuts is discussed next using the I and K addresses. Methods of calculation to correct offset adjustments are provided.
It may be necessary for a setup operator to edit Profile-Turning and Profile-Facing blocks on Fanuc or other controls using similar cycles. This module provides the information needed to understand these commands and to safely edit them. Topics include the G71, G72 and G70 rough and finish cut commands, the Shape Definition blocks, the P and Q address words and the blocks to which they refer, and the D address words. A detailed example is used to illustrate the information.
Procedures are taught in this module for entering thread-cutting processes into a Mazatrol part program. Specific differences in the different models of Mazak control are covered, including the menu selections and the data which must be entered. All common types and styles of threads are covered. ID and OD as well as face and back threads are discussed. The PATTERN selections on Mazak controls are covered along with the resulting tool path. LEAD, CHAMFER and ANGLE are also highlighted. Cautions about the setting of the START POINT and END POINT in X are provided along with concerns about which portion of the thread insert was touched off when setting up the tool offsets. Tapping functions are covered next with an explanation of the selection of number, half, eights, quarters, and sixteenths from the menu.
Whether an operator is writing programs or running programs produced by an off-line programmer, it is important to learn the steps in safely checking the program for errors before attempting a trial run. The use of the Mazak "Check" functions is learned in this module to graphically check the program for errors. The process of reading the alarm message and finding the correct location of the error is demonstrated. The Check Step and Check Continue functions are outlined. Shape Erase and Tool Path erase are examined next. Third axis views using the DISPLAY MODE function are revealed for C axis work. Figure Check is demonstrated next followed by SIMULATION with its animated tool paths. Changes to the animation field of view and speed are explained along with the timing of the machining process.
The Okuma section demonstrates the simulation of tool paths. It also explains how to link the appropriate tool illustration to a newly installed tool so it appears correctly during the simulation.
Checking the program for errors is equally important on EIA controls. The use of the Dry Run feature of EIA controls is explained in this module to allow safe checking of the program before trial machining is done. The use of the feedrate override control to slow Dry Run speeds is discussed. The proper setting and use of Block Skip and other controls is detailed. The Dry Run process is then demonstrated. The trainee is directed to write down any potential errors discovered. The sequence on a Haas control is shown in the specific module.
In this module the student learns how to prepare the machine for trial running the first part in a new setup. Information provided includes setting the coolant lines for proper cooling of the cutting operations. The student also learns how to calculate the amount, axis, and sign of trial offsets for a variety of common cutting operations and types of tools. The variables to be considered are examined for axis, sign and trail value. Concerns about diameter versus radius programming are highlighted. Trial offsets is Z for shoulder cuts are also discussed as well as OD versus ID considerations. Special consideration for grooves is mentioned.
Procedures are learned in this module on performing a trial run. Topics include setting the control switches such as Single Block, and overrides, mounting a workpiece, and monitoring the trial run. The student learns how to eliminate chatter and how to adjust overrides and eventually calculate an adjustment to correct a continuing chatter problem. Checking dimensions after each tool path is demonstrated to allow for an offset adjustment and re-cut before proceeding to other tools. Safety considerations are also highlighted. The use of more than one offset on a tool is examined when multiple features are cut. The conditions under which multiple features are cut by the same tool, and one feature is out of tolerance, are examined and solutions recommended. The need to machine a groove out of sequence is explained as a way to correct for Z axis positioning errors without scrapping a part. Adjustments to drilled holes are reviewed as well. Special concerns with tapped threads are revealed as well as offset adjustment recommendations on single-point thread cutting.
The final module explains how to use the Insert, Alter and Delete editing functions of an EIA control. The process is demonstrated for each function with the cautions to be sure shop practice allows operators to edit programs. Search functions are utilized to locate blocks. Cursor positioning for each edit type is highlighted. The addition of blocks is also demonstrated. Trainees are cautioned when using the Delete function to be sure large strings of blocks are not deleted due to incorrect application. Trainees are directed to write down every edit to explain the purpose and date. Instruction is also included on getting approval before editing a program and on documenting edits after making them.